OCM 12th Commerce PDF Free Download [Latest 2024]

OCM 12th Commerce pdf
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DOWNLOAD OCM 12th Commerce pdf
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The OCM syllabus for 12th grade

Now here we are going to provide you with the syllabus of the 12th (OCM 12th Commerce PDF) grade of OCM. Read this carefully so that you can get what is the content of the 12th class syllabus of OCM and what you have to study in your 12th grade if you want to pursue your education in the commerce stream.

1. Introduction to Business Environment:

  • Business and its environment
  • Business activities
  • Business Objectives and social responsibility
  • Forms of business organization

2. Business Functions:

  • Human resource management
  • Marketing management
  • Financial management
  • Production management

3. Business Finance:

  • Introduction to Finance
  • Financial planning and strategy
  •  Capital and revenue expenditure
  • Sources of business finance
  • Cost of capital and capital budgeting
  • Working capital management

4. Marketing Management:

  • Introduction to Marketing
  • Marketing mix
  • Market segmentation and targeting
  • Advertising and sales promotion
  • Distribution channels
  • Pricing strategies

5. Human Resource Management:

  • Introduction to human resource management
  • Recruitment and selection
  • Training and development
  • Performance appraisal
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Industrial relations

6. Principles of Management:

  • Introduction to management
  • Functions of management
  • Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
  • Coordination and decision making
  • Leadership and motivation

7. Entrepreneurship Development:

  • Introduction to entrepreneurship
  • Types of entrepreneurs
  • Business opportunity identification
  • Business plan and feasibility study
  • Government policies and support for entrepreneurship

What is Commerce?

Commerce is the study of numerous components of business and commerce. It involves gaining knowledge about purchasing and selling things or services, handling money, marketing, accounting, economics, and other relevant topics.

In commerce, you study how companies run, how they make money, and how they interact with their consumers. It includes both old forms of commerce and new approaches utilized in e-commerce and Internet business.

Students who major in commerce frequently acquire information and abilities that may be utilized in the business world, such as managing funds, analyzing market trends, and making sound business opinions.

Parts Of Commerce

Commerce can be divided into several key parts or areas of study. Here are some common components of the commerce field:

1. Accounting: This involves recording, analyzing, and interpreting financial information of businesses. It includes financial statements, bookkeeping, budgeting, and auditing.

2. Marketing: The process of promoting and selling products or services. It includes market research, advertising, branding, pricing, and customer relationship management.

3. Finance: Managing and handling money within an organization. It covers topics such as investments, financial planning, risk management, and financial analysis.

4. Business Law: Understanding legal principles and regulations that govern business transactions, contracts, employment, intellectual property, and other legal aspects of commerce.

5. International Business: Focusing on the global aspects of commerce, including international trade, foreign exchange, cultural differences, and global market dynamics.

6. Supply Chain Management: Managing the flow of goods or services from the initial production stage to the final delivery to customers. It involves logistics, inventory management, and optimizing the supply chain process.

7. Entrepreneurship: The study of starting, managing, and growing a business venture. It covers aspects such as opportunity recognition, innovation, business planning, and risk assessment.

8. E-commerce: With the advancement of technology, electronic commerce, or e-commerce, has gained significant importance. It means buying and selling products or services in online stores. E-commerce platforms allow businesses and individuals to conduct transactions, market products, and reach customers globally. this is a good way of business if some have potential to make it hit.

9. Retail Management: Retail management involves the operation and administration of retail businesses. It includes tasks such as inventory management, visual merchandising, store layout, customer service, and sales strategies. Retail managers ensure that the store operates efficiently and provides a positive shopping experience for customers.

10. Business Ethics: The ethics of companies are concerned with the moral principles and ideals that influence corporate behavior. It deals with ethical concerns such as fair trade, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, and corporate governance. Businesses want to follow ethical practices in order to foster trust between consumers, workers, and stakeholders.

These are just some of the parts or areas within the broad field of commerce. Depending on the educational institution or program, there may be additional or slightly different areas of focus within the study of commerce.

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